Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Population Pyramids Essay

Population Pyramids Essay

1. The population of Australia passed the 16 million mark in August 1986 and the population grew faster from 15 to 16 million than from 14 to 15 million. The female population at this time outnumbered the male population, 8,005,000 to 7,968,000. The average age of males was 49.89 and the average age of females was 50.11. In 2006, the population of Australia was just over 20 million people. The median age was much younger than in 1986, closing in on 37 years for both sexes. Females continue to outnumber males in Australia by a similar ratio.

2. As of 2006, 4,027,947 people live in New Zealand. This is an increase of 290,667 people, or 7.8 percent, since 2001, according to census data. New Zealand’s population follows a similar pattern to Australia’s, where women outnumber men, 2,062,369 to 1,965,618, respectively. The median age in this country at this time is 35.9 years for all people.

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In 1986, the population was 3,313,500 people, experiencing a 0.3% increase from the year before. Males outnumbered females 100 to 97.9, contrary to the trend we have seen so far in both Australia and New Zealand. Furthermore, the population in 1986 had a median age of 30, which is also a figure that was consistently increasing, compared to the decrease we saw in Australia.

3. Although the population grew at a higher rate in New Zealand in 2006, factors such as the population is aging and the population of older persons is increasing makes me believe that the population will decline in growth. If it does not decline, and experiences a steady pattern of growth, it may still experience less growth than Australia, which seems to be growing at a nice pace over the past decade plus. Australia is getting younger and the female population outnumbers the male, which gives more opportunity for a higher birth rate.

4. There are many factors that can contribute to a population increase such as food, health care, sanitation, and standard of living. Improved technologies have allowed for agricultural establishments to support more and more people with greater efficiency. Fewer individuals die from injuries and illnesses due to improved healthcare and fewer individuals get infected due to a more clean and sanitized environment. Lastly, a better standard of living leads to low infant mortality rates.

5. The median age in New Zealand and Australia differ greatly. It can be seen that the population in New Zealand is just now getting older; meanwhile the population in Australia has already experienced that stage in the population pyramid cycle. In the aforementioned years particularly, you can see how the two countries are at different points in their development, even though the cycle may end up being similar.

Explain the patterns you see in Qatar's population profile in 2005…
The populations profile in Qatar shows a huge imbalance between men and women, where men outnumber women on an average ratio of 3:1. The population is growing most rapidly between the ages of 40-59 and 75% of the population is between the ages of 15-59. The population is growing at a rapid rate.

Qatar 2005…
The imbalance between male and female populations can be explained by constant arrival of foreign labourers due to the high involvement in the labour markets here, as opposed to the creative services driven economies of the west. This can create major social and security problems in the future.

Explain the patterns you see in Russia's population profile in 2005…
The Russian population profile shows a relatively young group of people. Because the quality of life is stabilizing in Russia, I think that the population will remain steady in the future. However, statistics show a higher employment rate and a higher standard of living in recent times, as well as there are more foreign investors and privatization than ever before.

Russia 2005…
Because many men died during WWII, it created an opportunity for a high birth rate due to the ratio of men to women. This resulted in many people being born between the 1970s-1980s and barring any catastrophes this pattern should continue for a while, until the population is once again balanced. This can be reflected in the above profile due to the boom in the young population, which has contributed positively to the economy.

-Which city: Australia, Sydney (east coast), Perth (western coast), or Darwin (north coast) would you expect to grow most rapidly in the future?...

The north coast has the lowest population density and one of the highest growth rates of all Australian states. The centre of the North Coast has moved 15.9 km north in the past years, which indicated very strong and rapid growth in the future. Western Australia will grow steadily due mainly to 3 factors, including interstate migration, overseas migration and natural increase. This could be due to a low population density in Perth, which creates an opportunity for growth, yet does not offer too much economic activity. The east coast has experienced the least growth in recent times. The construction of multistory apartment buildings in capital cities such as Sydney were the reason for higher growth a few years earlier but the trend does not continue in recent times. Population density here is high, so there is little room for growth on an overall scale.

Does the population profile of Darwin, Australia…
The population profile of Darwin, Australia shows an increase of older persons over the past five years. However, the population is experiencing a decrease in unemployment rate as well as in the total number of people not in the labour force. The assumption that the aging population will create a need for more activity in the public administration, safety, health care, and social assistance is backed up by a quick statistical analysis.

The population sizes for Australia, Sydney, Perth, and Darwin are quite different for all three cities…
Although the population sizes for Sydney, Perth and Darwin are all quite different, this does not necessarily display true population density. There are differences among these three cities such as population density and the surroundings and activity of each location. In the regard of population density, Perth and Darwin are similar compared to the likes of Sydney, which is one of the most populated cities in Australia.
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Tuesday, June 26, 2012

Essay on Parody

Essay on Parody

The following is a synopsis for a contemporary parody on Hemingway’s A Farewell of Arms. It uses the book’s basic plot to draw a line between the 2008 economic turmoil and the 2009 Swine influenza.

The plot takes place during the mortgage crisis and its consequent economic turmoil. Fred is a junior trader with the slowly collapsing Lehman Brothers. He is utterly unmotivated, works just hard enough not to get fired and hassled by his bosses. As the company continues its course of free fall, Fred’s apathy becomes an advantage; as panic and despair takes over, especially among the men, Fred’s actions remain as usual – slow, gloomy and, ironically – he appears to be much more stable than his colleagues.

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Kathy is a recent collage graduate, who keeps being rejected from jobs with the financial industry and works in Lehman’s cafeteria under a subcontractor. She pulls Fred out of his apathy and convinces him to do the only reasonable thing – getting laid off, and fast, as long as retirement settlements are still available.

Unfortunately, the harder the try to mess up, the smaller is the likelihood of achieving their goal. Fred trades against the market, but gains against all odds. When he sabotages a major client’s portfolio, his transactions log is deleted, and a computer technician takes the blame. He tries to disappear from the office during lunch, injures his knee, and finds himself hospitalized and unable to continue his efforts, while Lehman’s ship is sinking.

Kathy’s experience is not any better. After several failed attempts to appear incompetence, she decides to pour laxatives into the soup. Just as lunch begins, she is called to the supervisor’s office and is asked to work at a nearby hospital (another of her company’s customers) for the rest of the week. She goes there reluctantly, and finds Fred lying in one of the departments. Their relationship turns into a love affair, and they understand that there is no way to escape from sinking along with the company.

Back at Lehman Brothers, corporate executives are being accused for the crisis and dismissed one after the other. An atmosphere of suspicion and hostility dominates the building, shareholders send private investigators to sniff around, and the couple is afraid that their past actions may get them in troubles. On Monday, September 15, 2008, they leave New York City heading south. Hearing about Lehman’s Chapter 11 application that morning, they feel relived, as they know that there is nowhere to go back to and that no one will look for them. Now they must find a place where the financial crisis can only be seen in the newspaper.

But no place like that could be found. They eventually cross the border to Mexico, hoping to find a place too poor to be affected by the economic slowdown. They arrive at a Mexican pig farm, where they spend the winter and live happily as never before.

When spring arrives, Kathy begins to feel weak and has high fever. Worried Fred takes Kathy to a local hospital. The doctors, who have never seen such symptoms, call an epidemiologist for help.
A new global crisis has just begun.
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Monday, June 25, 2012

Research Paper on Jesus Christ

Research Paper on Jesus Christ

The story of Jesus Christ began in Roman-occupied Judea, later renamed Palestinia by the occupiers. His life and death were chronicled well enough, that his word spread throughout the world. His message, or gospel reverberated for the last two millennia to parts of the world where before, the inhabitants only knew paganism and idolatry. As it slowly crept throughout the Middle-East, then to parts of Africa, the Mediterranean, Europe and finally to other parts of the world. It was difficult to convince the natives of the lands to adopt the new religion, many were pagans, who still believed in the god Pan, a half-man half-goat-like creature after whom the concept of the devil came about in Europe. Once the religion was embraced by the inhabitants, however, they were introduced to a story which even fascinates people to this day. The life of Christ, his good deeds, betrayal, trial, crucifixion and resurrection were all recorded for the purpose of spreading his story to the rest of the world. (Johnson 1991)

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The gospel of mark was the first gospel written about the life and death of Jesus according to some scholars. To understand his writings more in depth, it is necessary to understand the man behind the man and his life in order to interpret his writings. He wrote the gospel approximately seventy five years after the death of Christ, just after the destruction of Jerusalem. Unfortunately, from what was analyzed by scholars throughout the years, Mark’s writing style wasn’t as well as well structured as other writers of the time. The language of the other gospels was much better structured than his. The language used for writing the gospel was Greek, which means he was at least somewhat educated in the art of writing, although he by no means was as good of a writer as the gospels that followed him. In recent years, the gospel has become considered as not very reliable by many scholars associated with this field of study. It has also been hypothesized that the work of Mark was actually the work of many people, put together under his name. his works on the gospel portrays Christ in the light of a miracle worker, but moreover, he is portrayed as greater than that, because in those times, miracle workers were a dime a dozen. As the betrayal of Christ was coming near, he met with a High Priest who interrogates him by asking: “are you the Christ, the son of the Blessed?”, to which Christ responds: “I am and you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of power and coming with the clouds of heaven.” According to Mark, Jesus is dispatched to Pilates, who later sentencces Jesus to death. It is only then that Christ’s true identity is revealed as the Messiah. Although it is not clear whether Mark was a Jew or a gentile, his gospel steers towards Jesus being the Messiah almost everywhere. It is only when a Roman soldier exclaims that Jesus is truly the Son of Gd, that his identity is truly recognized.(Mellowes 1998) During his arrest, Mark doesn’t make it clear as to whether the betrayer of Jesus was with him. Following that, during his trial, it is quoted that Jesus will destroy the Holy Temple of Gd. Again and again, Mark alludes that the betrayal of Jesus by Judas needed to happen so he could die. Him dying and coming back to life will truly prove that he IS the Messiah for the world, and that a new kingdom will be rebuilt in his name. dring his trial and crucifixion, all the gospels remain on the same page, however at the time of Christ’s death, Mark only mentions of his body being put in a cave.

Matthew described Jesus’ life from the beginning until the end. He went so far as to establish his lineage back a few centuries to prove that he was the king of the Jews. He was a tax collector in the Galilee region of Israel, a profession which was shunned by the rest of the Jewish population, because it was seen as collaborating with the occupying enemy. Although there is some disagreement amongst the scholars now, evidence suggest that Matthew met Jesus first hand and was one of his followers. The entire gospel is written in Hebrew, as opposed to Marks, which was in Greek. Much or most of Matthews writings can be found in Mark’s, which tells us that Matthews accounts were taken from Mark and were given his own twist. One of the most important subjects that Matthew alludes to in many of his writings, is the necessity to spread the gospel of Christ throughout the world and missionize entire communities. This concept spread throughout the world and is still happening today with thousands of missionaries meandering undeveloped and poor parts of the world, looking to save souls. Matthew’s portrayal of Jesus’ betrayal is divided into three parts: Jesus celebrating Passover, the resolve of the Priestly hierarchy to execute him, Judas’ acceptance of coins in turn for handing him over to the authorities, and the anointing of him by an unnamed woman during the dinner are repeated as in Mark’s gospel, but modified to fit Matthew’s way of dealing with the subject. Matthew points out that everything that is happening, is according to a divine plan, and Christ knows all about it, and moreover has complete control over all the events that are about to occur. When the arrest of Christ comes, Matthew’s words parallel that of Mark as well, but whereas Mark focuses on Jesus and the Disciples in his narrative, Matthew focuses more on Jesus. During Christ’s apprehension, Matthew states that his betrayer was with him at the time. During his trial, Jesus makes it seem as though he will destroy the Temple: “I can destroy the Temple of Gd.” When Jesus is condemned to death, it is Matthew’s intention to show that the Scriptures have been fulfilled and that shame has been brought upon the High Priests. During the crucifixion of Christ, Matthew followed Mark in the events: Christ’s Mockery, the crucifixion, and the derision. It is alluded to the mocking of Christ as the King of the Jews in all of the scriptures, and Matthew as well as Mark state that he is the Messiah. With the sequence of events at the time of Christ’s death, Matthew writes about the placing of Jesus’ body in the tomb, and of soldiers guarding it. (Daniel J. Harrington 1991)

The Gospel of Luke is a special gospel, because it is the first one to be written well in a literary sense. It is the first part, of a two part series in the apostles story, and is the fifth book in the new testament. Its most famous part is Christ’s sermon in the field, as opposed to the mount in Matthew. In the introduction, Luke hints at the fact that a lot of people have already been talking about Christ before the account was written. What is important here, is that it was written around 140 AD, and early Christians, led by Marchion, stated that they wanted to clear the new testament of Jewish influence and testaments. In the writer’s eyes, the New Gd of the New Testament, had nothing to do with the Old Gd of the old testament, because of his violence and jealousy. Hence only the Gospel of Luke was accepted. Around the year 170, the four gospels had a special status, and Tatasian collected them and put them together. Jesus’ last meal, as described by Luke, is distinctive because it combines that last Passover Seder that Jesus has, and the discourse during the meal. Jesus’ praying at the Mount of Olives and his consequent arrest, have the same characteristics as the other writers, but are written in a way that is both sensitive culturally, yet, at the same time very artistically. Time and time again, the accounts hint at Christ’s testing of his faith, and he always triumphs spiritually. During the trial as well throughout the gospel, the Disciples of Jesus are handled gently by Luke, whereas the Priests, are put in a negative spotlight. It is possible to suggest, that distancing Christianity from Judaism, and his portrayal of the Priests in a negative light, paved the road for future anti-Jewish sentiment and anti-Semitism perpetuated by Christians against Jewish communities of the world. In Jesus’ condemnation to death, it is again seen how persistent the Priests (which makes it seem as if all the Jews) wanted him to be executed immediately. It is clear that every aspect of his gospel having to do with the Jews, they are portrayed as blood-thirsty beasts that want to execute the Son of Gd, because their status is at stake. Each charge brought against Christ by the Jews is declares Jesus innocent by the Roman Pilate, which doesn’t make them too happy. (Johnson 1991)

The Gospels tried to illustrate their take on the life and death of Jesus Christ. Mark was the first to write about him, and emphasised that Jesus was the Messiah. Mark, a supposed contemporary of Christ and a tax collectr, emphasized spreading the word of Christ throughout the world. And finally, the words of Luke portrayed the Jews in a negative light, and his well-structured litterary masterpiece was the straw the broke the camel’s back in severing the Christian religion from it’s patriarchal ancestor, Judaism, thus setting the relations between the two religions back centuries.
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Monday, June 11, 2012

Contemporary Sociology Essay

Contemporary Sociology Essay

Human life and activity is subjected to a list of classifications which define and explain social and cultural differences between people within a region, a country or even the whole planet. Here I would like to shortly outline some exciting social trends and processes of the contemporary society.

Firstly, I would like to express my curiosity in defining such terms as ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity’. The basic knowledge gives a hint that race unifies a large amount of people who have physical similarities, live in a certain region on the planet, and share common values like history, traditions or skills. Ethnical division seems to be rather loose: people form nations within a race and segregate on the principles that have value in their societies – religion and political views, lifestyles, or even consumer products (Macionis, 2009). It is interesting to know that different countries have different classifications for both racial and ethnical systems which vary over time in numbers and names these systems get (Ferrante, 2008, p.234). Still one of the biggest concerns nowadays, according to Macionis (2009), Ferrante (2008, p.235) and Giddens and Griffiths (2006, p.488), is the identity of black people in the countries of North America and Europe. The status of black has been changing over the last half-century, and now the blacks are considered the part of ethnicity in many countries. On the contrary, they are defined as a ‘racial group of Africa’, and this is a vivid distinction between race and ethnicity as classification systems.

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Feminism has also been a favourite topic for discussion in many environments for already one and a half century. According to Macionis (2009), feminists find interconnection between their personal and social life being active members of society. They require equity between genders, sexual autonomy and the freedom of choice. Basically I understand this as a desire for women to distinguish themselves, and nowadays we have lots of examples of successful female individuals all around the world. Anyway, this movement still gained popularity not in many countries – there are nations and probably even races where a female better prefers patriarchy and dominance of a man over her. One of the strongest examples is the order of life in Arabic countries dictated by their religion and traditions.

Health proves its importance for every race and gender. To be healthy means to be a rigorous member of the society. Different classes of people are exposed to different problems with health, which depend on their material situation, social class, cultural preferences, gender, and other factors. Higher social classes consequently feel healthier because their way of life is more qualitative than that of lower classes (Macionis, 2009). This concerns also the statistics of deaths and giving birth (Giddens and Griffiths, 2006, p.274). Basically, the statistics takes account of all reasons: poor diet, bad habits, stress, living in dangerous or polluted zones, education and employment rates, etc. I feel surprised to find such points as infrastructure and social security in the list – it does not seem obvious that a person’s health depends on public transport planning and inadequate social treatment as well.

Aging is an important issue both in sociology and medicine. While the life expectancy has increased by thirty years from the beginning of the 20th century (Macionis, 2009), many scientists worry about the demographic situation in the world. The dependency ratio between the number of children and old people has risen (Macionis, 2009; Giddens and Griffiths, 2006, p.192). This process is called “the graying of the nation” and takes place in the US and other countries of the world. For the older part of the nation this results in changes in human psychics, mental and physical abilities. How can we apply this knowledge? I would say that these data are valuable in marketing and strategic management for the businesses. The products and the amounts of units produced change in order to target the generations with better buying attitude and consumer needs.

Politics from the sociological point of view is based on the concept of power and authority. They are the basis for political systems which are applied in the modern world (Macionis, 2009). Usually the type of the political system witnesses about some cultural and historical peculiarities of a certain nation. I consider the United States to be one of the most outstanding countries from the political point of view. Stability and traditional approach is inherent to politics in US, though, being a country with the highest ethnical diversity, the politics has to touch many issues in social life as well. The diversity of nations suggests on considering the rights and opinions of extremely different social groups. Besides, the status of these groups changes from time to time and this may even require reviewing a list of laws and regulations. Barack Obama is the first black US President, even though only half a century ago the rights of black people were suppressed.

As for me, studying social processes helps to understand the historical and cultural legacy of the nations, make better decisions and forecasts for future, and learn more about the lifestyles of the surrounding people. I view sociology as a powerful tool in predicting of emerging trends and reacting on them on personal and social levels.
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Sunday, June 10, 2012

Barack Obama Research Paper

Barack Obama Research Paper

After becoming a President, Barack Obama has been facing a lot of difficulties when managing different spheres of life in the United States. Even now, one of his obvious concerns is social life of Americans. Health care and protection have always been an important issue in the American society. Besides, health spending is a huge part of the US budget, that’s why Mr. Obama is interested in economical efficiency of it. The decision is clear: a reform in health care should take place.

The USA is the country that spends the largest sums on medical care in the world. Obama defines several ways how to spare in the health industry and provide benefits for the citizens. His actions are aimed at providing people with security and health coverage as well as saving costs at the same time. His primary plans comprise of issuing insurance to a large amount of people who have never had insurance in the past, eliminate problems with security provision, and make health care efficient (Woodward, 2010, p.261).

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The outcomes that the US President forecasts include the decrease in health care expenditures, improvement in the medical services and treatment, availability of insurance for the citizens and immigrants, avoidance of fraud, and increasing of cost allocation efficiency (Amadeo, 2010).

Healthcare Economist (2009) and Samuelson (2009) observe the conditions of the reform from own economical points of view. They come up with the findings concerning Obama’s propositions in the sphere of medicine and health protection. I will try now to summarize all the opinions, which represent the possible effects of a reform.

At first, health care should prove efficient both for the citizens and the government. Currently, medical services in the US are not distributed in equal proportion and do not meet the needs of those who require help. It is known that America is about narrow specialization in all fields and industries. This means that there is a lack of specialists who are effective in several areas at the same time. The same thing concerns medical employees especially doctors. There is an overcapacity of equipment and plenty of medical stuff in specialist care. If the decrease of these amounts is possible, then the expenditures on specialist care will also decline not affecting the efficiency of the services provided.

The situation with the primary care is opposite. It is not adequate to reduce the spending and save on the implementation of new technologies. In this case, primary care will benefit only if the same price policy for the treatment is maintained.

Decrease in the price will result in the decrease of service. Still, Americans do not experience appropriate medical treatment especially when it comes to chronic diseases (Amadeo, 2010). Based on this, spending on the types of medical care that are not so popular among the medical personnel and patients should be eliminated. This may be considered as a source of saving costs.

At second, saving on health care is supposed to help saving the national budget, Obama’s team says. The cost of health care should decline by 1.5% annually (Amadeo, 2010). Some people do not agree with this because they see the dependence of money spent by citizens to their expectations. The more a regular person spends on insurance and health care, the more he or she expects to get in return. If the quality of medical service declines, then the amounts spent on insurance will also decrease. This will not include any major changes in the budget. But the insurance of 30 million of previously uninsured people will. “People with insurance use more health services than those without. If the government insures 30 million or more Americans, health spending will rise” (Samuelson, 2009). According to Amadeo (2010), only about 25% of American citizens are insured today. Adding 30 million to the number of already insured will make up one third of US population. So the number of insured people in US will still be the lowest among the developed countries, though the increase in expenditures will be significant. According to the statistics, 22,000 Americans die each year only because they do not have insurance and lack money for the medical treatment.

From the other point of view, a better price for medical treatment may be the case to spend more on special care. The result is the possibility to be more health-oriented for the citizens. At the same time, the governmental expenditures on medical treatment stay the same, so there is no cost saving from the economical point of view. Besides, many new specialists appeared in the last years that provide modest treatment for significant amounts of money.

What is estimated as a better price is actually a “smaller future increase” (Samuelson, 2009). In ten years, the total health spending in the United States may double. According to the forecasts, an average American family will spend then $2,500-2,600 more on health care and insurance than they do today. In 2030, the projected amount of spending is equal to $10,000 (Amadeo, 2010). Obama informed that the expenditures associated with the reform would not affect the interests of older people. Therefore, he commented that older people will not benefit from the changes in the health care system.

At third, Obama suggests that decreasing the costs on health care “would lower unemployment and raise employment in the short and medium runs” (Healthcare Economist, 2009). Amadeo (2010) writes that the unemployment rate will fall down 0.25% annually creating 500,000 in the next thirty years. If thirty years term defines the long run, what changes should we expect in the upcoming years? “Unemployment looks like a sine wave, displaying no strong long-term trend”, says Healthcare Economist (2009). On the contrary, it suggests that the problem of unemployment may be reduced only for the following three years, which are actually the short-term run. According to the opinion polls, writes Woorward (2010, p.261), new jobs are of high demand by the electorate. Businesses are supposed to spare on the health insurance for their employees, and this may be a stimulus to hire more personnel. The timing forecast for this tendency is three years. From the other point of view, employers can just raise the salary to their current employees, so the employment boom will not take place. Besides, statistics suggests that the rates of employment have never depended on the situation in the health care for teens of years.

As one can see, there are some limitations in the given data. Basically, all opinions are contradictory. The opponents of the reform emphasize on the impossibility to implement both tasks at the same time: provide insurance for those who lack it and reduce spending in the whole health care sector. But Obama administration suggests that both missions are manageable within the same time frames because “there’s too much waste in today’s health-care system” (Samuelson, 2009). Another contradiction is the way analysts use data: some find the numbers positive, others find them negative.

In order to start the reform, Obama had to reorganize the health care system of the United States. Last year, for example, when the debates took place, both Obama’s opponents and supporters were concerned with the “public option” choice. It represented the governmental insurance which was competitive to the private ones (Sasseen, 2009). The parties debated for the necessity of its introduction. By the way, Europe adopted similar changes in the twentieth century. The new idea is that a person does not need to have job in order to have insurance. So now the labour market can easily be in danger because there are some categories of people who have their jobs just to be insured. On contrary, they may fear to lose the health insurance and keep their jobs. If insurance can be available to a wider range of citizens, then the work force can choose the employer on the basis of more diverse characteristics. Here is how the rate of employment in the small businesses can rise (Healthcare Economist, 2009).

Some months ago, new changes to the health care legislation were required. As Healthcare Economist (2009) has previously informed, the work force could be obliged to pay more tax. “It is likely that the economic well-being of the currently insured would decrease (through higher taxes)” (Healthcare Economist, 2009). This could be done in order to implement the health care benefits for different social layers and categories, including the baby boomers, uninsured citizens and immigrants. The excise tax was introduced with the idea to charge it for the insurance benefits of the working citizens. The national union of nurses, National Nurses United (NNU), opposed the legal act: insured employees have almost no benefits of their insurance plans, that’s why requiring taxation would be corrupt (Australian Nursing Journal, 2010). Previously it was reported that only the richest layers of population are subject to this taxation.

At the end of March, 2010 The House of Representatives approved the final version of the reform for the next ten years. $940 billion were allocated for the program. The reform supposes to toughen the requirements for the insurance companies. The goal is to make insurance easily accessible for all citizens. In special insurance centers, Americans will now have a possibility to buy the insurance policies without the employers’ assistance. Now individuals are obliged to buy the policies, and the insurance companies are responsible for selling them. Sanctions are defined for those who refuse. Supposedly, the implementation of all positions in the health care reform will take up to four years.

The reform has already led to a plenty of conflicts and disagreements both in the political world and among the American citizens. The opinions on the reform are extremely different, though no one can still forecast the consequences precisely. It is thought that the rating of the US President fell down in some states because of the implementation of the reform. The Republicans now blame Barack Obama in ‘socialization’ of medicine in the United States. Samuelson (2009) summarizes that the control over the whole health care system will be impossible.

The consequences for the US are unpredictable. Some think that the funds for the reform are insufficient, others are afraid of considerable expenditures on medical insurance for businesses. Besides, the profits of medical firms will probably decline.

As an outcome, each American citizen now needs to have health coverage, either personally purchased or subsidized by the government. And the new category of people emerged – those who can buy insurance policies without being employed. Woodward (2010, p.262) quotes the recent words of John Dingell, the author of the last health care bill issued in 1957: “Yet it is historic change for an American system that has proved resistant to reform for a century”.
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Wednesday, June 6, 2012 Paper Writing Service

It is quite difficult for a student to study at high school, college or university nowadays. Students have to spend long hours on written papers. According to the general educational standards and the requirements of an average educational institution students have to concentrate on writing various kinds of papers. The most common home assignment at all levels of education is essay writing. There are dozens of types of essays which require strict structure and organization. Essay writing is aimed at the development of students’ creativity, imagination, critical thinking, abilities to analyze information and present it briefly. It is obvious that college and university essays should be more complicated and thoroughly done.

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Sunday, June 3, 2012

Essay on Multinational Enterprises

Essay on Multinational Enterprises

Although the roots of the multinational companies began their formation with the beginning of the intense colonization, international travels and discoveries of the new territories back in the sixteenth century, the phenomenon has become truly global only four centuries later. In the following paper we intend to analyze and determine the underlying reasons for the emergence of such companies and their basic steps in becoming multinational.

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First of all, it is important to define the term under discussion: according to Dunning and Lundan, a multinational enterprise is “an enterprise that engages in foreign direct investment and owns, or in some way, controls value-added activities in more than one country” (2008, p.3). Jean Francois Hennart defines the same term as “an organization that extends employment contracts over national boundaries” (Pitelis & Sudgen, 2000, p.72). An MNE is an enterprise that controls and manages production units located in at least two countries, according to Richard Caves, (Caves, 1991, p.146), while Vernon and Wells call it “a cluster of affiliated firms located in a number of countries” (Vernon and Wells, 1981, p.3). Although the definition of the multinational enterprise varies in complexity and wording, most scholars agree at the several core points: it is a business enterprise of some kind, and it expands its business interests over the national boundaries. Dunning and Lundan continue exploring the topic through defining the criteria for assessing the level of an enterprises’ “multinationality”. According to the scholars, the latter may include: the number and size of foreign affiliates or associate companies, the number of countries in which the company owns or controls the value-added activities, the degree of management’s internationalization, the proportion of global assets, revenue, employment or income accounted for by its the foreign affiliates, etc. (Dunning & Lundan, 2008).

It is notable that the first theories trying to explain the emergence of the multinational enterprises based on increasing popularity of the foreign direct investment (Hennard, 2008). However, the differences in real interest rates provide “neither a necessary nor a sufficient reason” for the existence of the multinational enterprises and there is, according to the scholars no evidence of the interconnection between the foreign direct investments and the growth of a multinational enterprise. Steven Hymer questioned the FDI theory of the MNE, asking why did firms, not the commercial institutions like banks, have undertaken the FDI and sought control over the foreign assets (Hennard, 2008, p. 129). Hymer also stated that “if a firm of one country possesses an advantage over firms of all other countries in a certain line of activity, that does not necessarily mean that the firm will have its own enterprises in foreign countries (1976, p. 47), implying that the firm might not choose to use an advantage but license it instead. Yamin claims that direct foreign investment was more preferable because there were just a few buyers on the market of the advantage, while direct foreign investment potentially increased joint profits and eliminated the oligopolistic competition (Yamin, 2008, p. 59). Hymer’s theory suggested that the emergence of the multinational enterprises was mainly caused by the internalization pecuniary externalities of the two monopolists that would combine their forces in order to overcome the structural market imperfections. However, in reality MNEs exist in highly competitive fields with numerous participants like car production and textile industry as well.

The existence of the natural market imperfections made the scholars go further in their theoretical vision of the causes of the business internationalization. Internalizing the non-pecuniary externalities (natural market imperfections) is the main idea of the transaction cost/internalization theories. The transaction cost theory argues that an MNE “arises to organize interdependencies between agents located in different countries” (Hennart, 2008). This only happens in case the costs of such transactions within the firm are lower than the same costs within the market and simultaneously are lower than the final profits gained. The additional challenge for the MNE is that it has to deal with the political and the cultural barriers.

Trying to determine the main reasons for the multinational enterprises’ activities, the scholars have determined several motives for the foreign production. These findings allow categorizing the MNEs into the following core types: the natural resources seekers, the market seekers, the efficiency seekers and the strategic asset seekers. There are several additional theories trying to explain to some extend the activities of the multinational enterprises in the form of the direct foreign investments. The latter include, according to Dunning, the risk diversification hypothesis, macro-financial and exchange rate theories.

The companies going abroad may justify such a move through numerous possible benefits, including the economy on scale, the economies of scope, access to key factor and location-related advantages, satisfying growth expectations of shareholders, accumulation of the market power, etc (Venzin, 2009). For either reason a firm might switch its production or trade location – the most important condition for such actions would be that the cost of such “moves” is lower than the same moves on the internal market or any other alternative actions.

The next question is: how do they do it? How do the firms become multinational? There are a number of ways a firm can internationalize its business: through contractual agreements, exports or foreign direct investments. Numerous factors add to the decision-making process, including the industry characteristics, the market size, the restrictions on foreign investments, the competitive advantage of the foreign firm and the resource availability to implement the strategy may be named as several core factors among others. Decision-making here is a complex procedure implying cost and risk analysis and it obviously needs a huge data base to be able to go international. To be on the safe side, a firm will most naturally follow the organic growth pattern in the form of a subsidiary, branch or representative office and accumulate knowledge and experience in order to ensure further market success. The range of multinational organizations may roughly be divided into “horizontal” firms, which produce the same goods and services in multiple countries, and “vertical” firms that tend to geographically diversify and fragment the production stages (Carr & Markusen & Maskus, 2001). The former, the scholars claim, seem to be more prevalent in the existing business world.

Despite the reason and the form of cross-border expansion, the multinational enterprises are a continuously growing and expanding phenomenon of the previous century that tends to continue activities in the twenty first century. The history of the multinational enterprises activity is a mix of political, social, economical, cultural factors, events and reactions. Active globalization has proved that MNEs are willing and able for either reason to organize cross-border production and transaction more efficiently. This phenomenon still requires further deep studies of the reasons and ways of the existing businesses going international and the impacts of these activities on an international scale as well as for each separate country involved in such multinational business. For either reason, the multinational enterprises offer new possibilities for the consumers and other businesses and add to our knowledge of commercial benefits that might be brought through experiencing new challenges and opportunities on the foreign or even global market. The studies of the MNEs continue, and it is obvious that building a strict theoretical basis for the activities of the multinational companies is far from being realized and applied as a universal rule for the international commercial success. Further studies might help both the theorists and the practitioners realize how a company may become more profitable and successful, which might, in the end, bring additional benefits for the consumers as well.
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Friday, June 1, 2012

Research Paper on General Electric

Research Paper on General Electric

In today’s fast-paced world, it is necessary for an organization to stay one-step ahead of the competition to maintain its competitive edge. The organization is there to be an industry leader and market innovator in all of its products, whether they are for the domestic or for the commercial market. The upmost quality must be maintained within our product lines in order to adhere to our standards of quality. We are on a mission to bring the customers what they need at reasonable prices, highest quality, as well as products that, when possible, are manufactured in the United States from parts also made in the U.S. I believe that General Electric, with a history that spans more than 100 years, can, after a few years of neglect, return to the stage as the market leader it once was. Recently, there has been stiff competition from the Japanese and the Europeans and they have taken a significant portion of our business, so one of our objectives is to convince our former clients that we are the new GE that is more streamlined and competitive.


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I have encountered many problems within our organization when I stepped in as the CEO. It seems as though there has not been an establishment of effective responsibility for the actions of managers and employees. First and foremost, and I cannot stress this enough, is the communication between the employees and the managers. I want to have a culture where freedom of opinions is not an option, it is mandatory. I want to create the organizational culture where the communication model looks like an old wagon wheel, with the manager in the center and the employees around him, so there is always communication happening. Moreover, it will be ideal to create a culture with low power distance, meaning even though the manager is still the manager, there is some equality in the work place. I do not want people to be discouraged about expressing themselves. It will be great to have a more collectivistic culture here where many things, besides opinions are shared and groupthink is reduced significantly. It has been an uphill climb for us to establish this, but it’s working. There was a culture of unfriendliness here, and it stops now. The chain of command is not always necessary when projects are involved; this is why we will have open communication structures. I will also have meeting sessions with several low-level employees from each department in order to understand where the improvements can be made. I am sure that my initiative will be a beneficial first step in turning the company around.

It will be a very difficult process for everyone to accept this new change. History has shown us those who adapt well to change, will have a competitive advantage, and this is what the company needs to stay ahead of the game. The task will be a difficult one because there has been a lot of underperforming in every branch of the company and that will be dealt with. Each manager, supervisor and employee will be evaluated by his superiors, people on his level and by people below him to ascertain his commitment to the changes. I plan on slimming the company down by a significant portion, because the labor costs are driving us to the brink of bankruptcy. I will need the best and the brightest to achieve what our competitors are currently achieving. I will however, give everyone a chance to prove themselves. In order to instill a low power structure and a more collectivistic and open approach, I will have group outings with challenging games that will have certain rules that will pertain only to the culture that I wish to instill in these people. Those that fare well, will score points in my book and will show themselves to be the right candidates for this new structure.

Since the employees have stakes in the company, I believe they are on the front lines of what I would call a battle for the hearts and minds of our clients. From the beginning of our downward slump, the shares have fallen. I can only do so much as the leader to get the company rolling again. This is why as an incentive, it will be in the best interest of the employees to do their utmost to contribute to the company’s success in the market place. They are the key stakeholders in the company because they will have the power in their hands to make or break it, and I believe they will do what is beneficial for them, not necessarily the right thing, but what will give them financial stability and peace of mind for a long time to come.

As the CEO, it is my responsibility to bring about profit in an organization and to minimize loss. To do so I must take effective measures to guarantee this. These people as before preferred the status quo and stuck to their jobs. They didn’t seem to care to take initiative too much in their line of work, and this in turn led to our company’s downward slope. It is not enough to yell and to discipline people. Waste must be disposed of, and the talent that remains must be nurtured. Moreover, the incentives that are offered will certainly produce results, which will be beneficial for everyone involved from the bottom, up.
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