Friday, November 9, 2012

Research Paper on Advertising

American Advertising Research Paper

American Advertising: The Collective Use of an Individualistic Culture
American businessman and advertising guru David Ogilvy says “If you’re trying to do persuade people to do something…use their language, the language they use every day…in which they think”. David Ogilvy’s job, like the job of many creative directors and advertising executives, is solely based on recreating the image of oneself within a brand in order to sell it. In essence, this means that the brand being advertised must reflect the target group and its values, attitudes, lifestyle and opinions. 

Today’s American youth has been raised in a capitalistic society in which advertising has played a pivotal role. Seeing as youth and young adults are widely considered the ones with the largest amount of disposable income, these target groups are majorly affected. The weapon of choice for those in conquest of this type of consumer is the art of rhetoric, which includes the usage of modern day applications of logos, ethos and pathos. These rhetoricians dissect their target groups and then communicate the values these groups would like to, or are convinced they should, incorporate into their life. The following paper will apply these principles in the determination that advertisement merely reproduces the individualistic nature of American society, regardless of the product they are selling or the means through which they sell.

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For example, the image is an advertisement for a drink called Gatorade G2. The flavor in the bottle is fruit punch. The advertisement shows an NBA (National Basketball Association) superstar by the name of Dwyane Wade soaring through the sky, towards the hoop for a score. The caption reads, “Float like a butterfly sting like a bee”, which is a famous quote, words spoken by boxing legend Muhammed Ali. On the right half of the advertisement, the product is presented with some copy about the nutritional benefits and uniqueness of this drink as opposed to others, along with some standard disclaimer and copyright information.

Gatorade is a well-known refreshment, commonly consumed by amateur, collegiate level, and professional athletes. It’s sponsorship of sport is unmatched, making it one of the most popular refreshments in the world. However, the image design chosen by Gatorade to present this product does not remotely represent the concept of most sports it sponsors, which is team play. This image promotes individualism over collectivism, which is not surprising and makes complete sense. Western society, on the whole, is an individualistic society compared to that of the East. Here we see a basketball champion rise to his goal but we do not see the path he has taken to get there. Any NBA player will tell you that this path includes teammates, trainers, and coaches, as well as the support of many others.
The concept of individualism over collectivism is furthered by the caption above the baller, which is that of a boxing legend. Although it does fit well with the image, it does not do justice to the sport of basketball, which is a team sport. Boxing is an individual’s sport. Should the creative minds behind this ad have thought to create a more team oriented advertisement, there could have been many ways to work it in to the concept as well as many fantastic quotes to use from basketball legends to describe the journey depicted in this photo. Instead, highlighted is the importance of individual achievement of superstars such as Muhammed Ali and Dwyane Wade, as a means to communicate the message “you are important” so you should drink the best in order to be the best. This can be contrasted by a similar advertisement produced by the same company, for Adidas China.

In other ad, we can observe a female basketball player soaring to the hoop as well. Only this time, there is a sea of grey-shaded people pushing her upwards, as well as pushing the hoop towards her. The female star stands out due to the emotions of triumph and achievement associated color, but she is not as recognizable as the superstar in the American advertisement (China’s equivalent would be Yao Ming, Kobe Bryant).  This puts an emphasis on team play and collectivistic nature in two ways. Firstly, there is a team of people supporting the player to get her to her destination. Secondly, the level of superstardom reached by this player is not accented and therefore it is not deemed as important.
A study conducted by the European Advances in Consumer Research experimented on the effects of individualistic and collectivistic advertising on a sample of the German and Chinese population. The results showed that the more Western, capitalistic German population responded positively only to the individualistic advertisements while the Chinese population received both types of ads equally well (Sandra Diehl, 2003). While these results can be understood as a positive argument for individualistic culture and communication, one can also gather from this that collectivistic cultures are more diverse in their way of thinking. Nevertheless, the study indicates that the most effective way to reach Western consumers is through individualistic advertisements.
A question posed and discussed by many great philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato is “Which came first, the chicken or the egg?” This causality dilemma is often used to examine the origins of life in this universe. The same concept can be applied to the dilemma of American advertising and American youth. Do the parents bring up the youth individualistically? Did corporations, through advertisement, influence the parents beforehand? In this case, it is evident that successful American advertisements, regardless of the things they sell, use an individualistic approach to communicating their brands’ messages. Given the amount of money spent on advertising annually, it is not farfetched to believe that it has contributed to the individualistic culture of North America. However, it is irrational to conclude that the advertising industry can successful in being the initiators of a change.

Therefore, where the chicken is American advertising and the egg is American youth, chronologically the chicken came first and is the cause of the value structure of young American people. 

Nevertheless, it is the people who give the power to the advertisements. In conclusion, advertisements tell young people to value the same individualistic qualities their parents, teachers and the majority of American society tells them to value. It seems as if the advertising industry has stopped trying to innovate and instead follows the advice of Senator James E Watson: “If you can’t lick em,jine ‘em” (Shapiro, 2009).

Thesis Statement:
“Advertisement merely reproduces the individualistic nature of American society, regardless of the product they are selling or the means through which they sell.”

P1 Introduction:
    Advertising quote
    Overview: Advertising / American Culture
    Thesis Statement
P2 Analysis of Ad 1
    Background Information/ Context of Ad
    Highlight use of Ethos
    Highlight Individualism
P3 Comparison to Ad 2
    Highlight Collectivism
    Highlight use of Pathos
P4 Individualism/ Collectivism
    Reference study
    Interpret study
    Relate study to topic
P5 Conclusion
    Stir up philosophical debate
    Affirm thesis statement in favor of advertising
Communicate the message advertising sends to young adults.   
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Wednesday, October 31, 2012

Human Memory System Research Paper

Research Paper on Human Memory System

The Gift of Memory: The Short-term and Long-term benefits of Understanding the Human Memory System

List of Abbreviations
STS = Short Term Storage
ST-WM  = Short Term Working Memory
STM = Short Term Memory
LTS = Long Term Storage
LTM = Long Term Memory
LT-WM = Long Term Working Memory
TLE= Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

Yoko Ogawa is a Japanese author who has written over 20 novels of fiction and nonfiction. Her masterpiece, entitled The Housekeeper and the Professor, is an account of a professor, who has an accident and suffers from short-term memory loss. While the protagonist is able to retrieve memories stored in his long-term memory, such as the concepts he learned as a mathematician, he is unable to create new memories due to his short-term memory loss.  Every eighty minutes, he must relearn everything he knows about the present situation (Ogawa). The romantic piece by Ogawa serves as an excellent introduction to the concepts that differentiate short-term memory and long-term memory. In terms of from a psychological understanding of the human brain, the importance of these two phenomena cannot be overstated. Furthermore, their interdependence on one another has been systematically researched and studied as one of the most complicated aspects of human life (Oberbye 9).

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Recently, the growing use and application of animal experimentation has caused many theorists to move from analyzing human consciousness and memory to a more behavioral science oriented approach (Burgess and Hitch). Behavior associated with memory loss in accordance with outstanding occurrences such as different forms of amnesia and diseases such as temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and Alzheimer’s have revealed many insights in regards to all types of memory studies. Other wonders such as the various methods of retrieval of memory and effects of aging on memory cannot go unconsidered in the analysis of the concepts mentioned in this essay. Due to several restraining factors, however, this paper will focus on a brief review of several concepts, in the aim to distinguish between short-term memory, long-term memory, short-term working memory (ST-WM), and long-term working memory (LT-WM). By the end of this paper, the reader should be able to relate the different memory-oriented brain process theories such as STS, LTS, STM, LTM, ST-WM, and ST-WM and be piqued in his or her curiosity about brain-training methods that utilize these processes in the aim for a better memory system.

An Outline of the Memory System
Memory can be looked at through the magnifying glass of many detectives; philosophers and psychologists analyze memory differently. The former group precedes the latter in historical debates, while the latter analyzes memory from an information processing perspective. Psychologists maintain an emphasis on the theory that the creation and retrieval of memory occurs in a three-step process. This process consists of encoding, storage and retrieval. These processes use different parts of the brain to register, create and recall learned information. Storage occurs in the two process system that this paper highlights in the following paragraphs. In order to understand the complexities of STM and LTM, one must first grasp a general understanding of the memory system. In order to retrieve memories, information must first be stored. Short-term storage (STS) and long-term storage (LTS) have different capacities, interactions and response to different types of information. This means that the way a word or digit is remembered is different from the way an image or a face is remembered. STS accounts for environmental information, processed by sensory triggers in various physical modes, such as visual, auditory and haptic. The length that the information is stored here depends on control processes.  Sometimes newly acquired information will be copied into LTS. Older information, which is relevant can also be transferred into and activated through STS (Atkinson and Shiffrin, 3a). For example, when the professor in Ogawa’s novel learns of the housekeeper’s son’s age, the number 10 is stored in STS. Although, in his particular case, this information cannot be saved in LTS, the mathematical formulas he is well versed in allow him to perform meaningful calculations and associations to his past experiences with this number.

The Relationship between STM and LTM
The studies conducted recently have focused on a two-process theory, which examines the sensation otherwise known as memory as two separate entities. Up until the 1970s, there was little information available to distinguish between STM and LTM but the emphasis of the two process system was then encouraged by the times’ advances and developments of computer systems, which helped to generate models of behavior through mathematical psychology (Atkinson and Shiffrin). Since then, thorough research has proven that STM and LTM have a clear and interdependent relationship. In a supporting research article conducted by the Epilepsy Center Hamburg analyzing long-term receny effects in TLE, results showed that both temporal lobes could have influence on the long-term recency effect, but not on immediate recency effect (Benger and Malina). These findings indicate that that abilities associated with both STM and LTM are affected by the same processes, including proactive interference, albeit long term recency effect is more vulnerable when disturbed by Right TLE(Benger and Malina). In another research paper written by professionals in speech language pathology and audiology indicates that verbal short-term memory reflects the way the brain organizes long-term memory (Majerus and D’Argembeau). The interaction between STM-LTM has been proven to show that through the level activation of lexical-semantic knowledge (how and what the words of a particular language denote) and attentional resources, LTM is a critical determinant of STM performance (Majerus and D’Argembeau, 181).

Working Memory
Working memory is “the temporary storage of information that is being processed in any range of tasks” (Ericsson, and Kintsch), it is the evolution of theory related to STS, it is used in processes such as reasoning and learning,  and it is a prerequisite for LTS. To gain a better understanding, the human brain can be compared to a computer processing system, where Random-access memory (RAM) acts as working memory for processing an end product or result, which is then saved on the computer’s hard disk, which acts as the LTS. There is much data to indicate that the acquired knowledge and skill related to temporary working memory can be used to explain long term retrieval capability. LT WM memory, in essence, depends on retrieval cues stored in ST WM. For example, skilled performers such as chess players possess acquired knowledge that help produce special memory skills.

Development of these skills leads to “(1) increased speed of storage and retrieval of memory tasks through practice,  (2) incidental storage and retrieval of information in LTM during skilled activities, and (3) memory skills for selective storage and retrieval in LTM.”(Ericsson, and Kintsch). Some hypothesize that these special memory skills can be used to differentiate between data that others are not able to, therefore minimizing proactive interference. Furthermore, it is possible that if not for proactive interference, there would be no forgetting information acquired through working memory (Keppel and Underwood, 154).

Discussion and Conclusion
The studies aforementioned present some interesting ideas about the storage and retrieval of short term and long-term memory. After a brief analysis of the overview of the memory system, it is evident that there are a lot of elements that can be learned by correlating principals such as the two process system in accordance with several negative and positive contributing factors such as aging, disease, as well as memory skills and learning. Recommendations for further research would include similar studies such as that of Ericsson and Kintsch as in regards to the practical application of memory skills procurement as well as older studies to such as those of Atkinson and Schriffin memory model. Such studies could have positive effects not only on students around the world, but also on improving the quality of life of people who have to live with various forms of impaired memory.
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Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Cyber Crime Research Paper

Research Paper on Cyber Crime

Cyber threats – criminal and warfare activities that aim at private and/or public computers – gain increasing predominance in the list of global threats. This has to do with the increasing role of computer networks in public, business and private activities, as well as due to the growing sophistication of potential attackers. It may be also argued that none of cyber threats are as severe and material as cyber terrorism, which aims at national security and the proper functioning of other national institutions.

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As computer networks are becoming lucrative targets, both the incentive to attack them and the urgency to protect them rise and stand out from the other types of cyber threats. At least two aspects of cyber terrorism make this threat so central:

Firstly, the targets themselves (i.e. the network, servers. etc. being attacked) are usually of wider scope and scale than private and most business machines. This implies that the extent of damage done is potentially very wide, as well as the extent of people and processes involved.

Secondly, the mere thought that terrorists gain knowledge and experience in penetrating national computer networks is very troubling. Gradual improvements in cyber terrorists’ capabilities might be left unnoticed, as terrorists (unlike criminals) may wait years until they attack, while gathering valuable information and improving their skills throughout.

The U.S. is no stranger to cyber warfare and counter-terrorism, although much of the activities in this field probably remain unknown. The 2009 establishment of the United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) marked a significant leap forward in this direction. With its various departments (albeit some of them are not directly involved in cyber counter-terrorism), USCYBERCOM seems to represent a comprehensive approach of the Armed Forces towards cyber threats. Some of the major operations include securing communication networks and encrypting; securing databases and other sources of information; and protecting the computers, information stored and processed in them, and the networks in which they operate. The task forces of the USCYBERCOM join other national cyber defense organizations, most notably the cyber operations of the Department of Homeland security.

Notwithstanding the recent developments in this field, it is still uncertain that the U.S. is active enough in countering cyber terrorism. This is mainly because the latter (in a similar manner to guerrilla warfare) can be characterized as a very dynamic and rapidly changing array of threats, whereas the identity of the terrorist on the other side is very often unknown (as occurs in many other cases of cyber crime). Hence, USCYBERCOM and similar bodies can be effective only is they will be able to be as dynamic as their enemies, and only while working in close cooperation with international bodies. Since the USCYBERCOM just became operational last year it is impossible to determine its effectiveness. However, greater awareness to those threats and proper prioritization seem to have been taken into action already.
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Tuesday, October 9, 2012

Essay on Government

Essay on Government

Taking into consideration the fact that the government promotes trade and other types of relationships between all the parties involved, one may suggest on equal attitude to producers and consumers. In order to deepen into the concern, the interest of both parties should be evaluated.

The term ‘producers’ usually applies to the companies that maintain own production cycle. Briefly, a cycle for the random company includes purchasing and allocation of raw materials used in production, manufacturing itself, and distribution of the ready-made goods throughout a certain geographical location.

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The government regards each company as an economic unit that benefits the country in different ways: the company pays taxes, employs the work force, and utilizes the tangible resources of the country. Taxes from the legal entities and corporate bodies are the main source of profit for the government, so one of the main concerns of the government is to provide possibilities and facilities for trade within the country or outside its borders. The work force usually comprises of the citizens in the country, and by giving them job, the government decreases the level of unemployment saving the state budget. Each country possesses a certain amount of limited natural resources which belong to it. The government benefits by selling them or delivering the right of negotiation to the third parties.

The aforementioned factors also fall under the extension and specification. By arranging a foreign trade exchange of goods, the country appears more recognizable on the international market and affords to improve the image of the country. Let us remember IKEA, the world’s leading manufacturer of furniture and household appliances, which is one of the most well-known Swedish companies globally. One may also notice that the corporate colours of IKEA coincide with the colours of the Swedish national flag.

The term ‘consumers’ is used when identifying businesses and individuals with purchasing abilities. Purchase of domestic products means not only the customer satisfaction of needs but also the increase in GDP, the gross domestic product. It is a valuable measure of how well the country does because it influences the living standards and witnesses about the development of infrastructure and level of resource utilization. Therefore, the consumers are significant to the government as well.

Individuals are the human capital of the country which participates in the production processes. Groups of individuals make up institutions and organizations that may be involved either in management, production, trade or any other governmental or non-governmental activity. So businesses and governmental establishments may also be the consumers. The trade which occurs between two or more corporate bodies is known as business-to-business market, or B2B market. Even in this case, both businesses may be involved in manufacturing. This means that a certain company may be a producer and a consumer at the same time. The question arises: how should the government then treat such a company?

If to pursue the interests of the only party, the other party may suffer. Individual consumers may experience frustration and dissatisfaction with the products and their delivery, service or attitude, while ignoring the interest of businesses may lead to losses, recession, and instability.

Anyway, it is not always feasible to meet the desires and requirements of all affected sides. If the government has to make a strict choice, the trade policy should primarily benefit the producers. There are several reasons for that. At first, nowadays businesses struggle for their customers, so that the customer is free to choose among the high variety of suppliers and producers. They all try to convince the customer, and there is no need for the government to interfere. At second, the more producers are located in the country, the more parties including businesses and the government benefit. Among them, there may be conglomerates and businesses that produce goods or provide services for other businesses. Based on this, one may treat a service provider company as a production company as well. On the contrary, if the country has insignificant production facilities and limited number of manufacturers, it is better to concentrate on the interests of consumers rather than producers. At last, by pursuing the interests of businesses, the government may seldom target the interests of their employees. Employees are the individual consumers that have own preferences and will not probably depend on the benefits provided to their employer. They should be targeted separately, and mainly the network of small and large business enterprises is responsible for satisfying their interests. Consequently, there are still some closed countries like Belarus where the consumer interests equal needs because the government determines the access to the products and controls the production in the country.

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Saturday, September 22, 2012

Writing a Critical Research Paper

How to Write a Critical Research Paper

Every student who wants to achieve good knowledge and high-quality professional skills has to learn to prepare successful critical research papers on different topics. Writing a critical research paper does not always mean that you have to compare several problems, cases, events, movies, books, but present your own personal critical idea concerning the given topic. Researching the topic, you are expected to argue or support the ideas, suggestions of the scholars who have investigated this topic before and draw your own conclusions which illustrate your knowledge, critical thinking ability and analytical skills. Of course, students have difficulties with critical paper writing, so you are welcome to take advantage of the professional critical research paper writing guidelines which will make your writing process a bit easier.

Critical Research Paper Writing Tips:
  1. Starting conducting a research, read as much as possible about the topic, its problem. Find several different scholars who have analyzed this topic and study their conclusions. It is possible that they have drawn different conclusions, but remember that much work has been done to achieve these results. Reading the ideas of the scholars, remember that they have worked out many sources to provide you with reliable evidence on the topic. On the other hand, it is possible that these scholars have provided you with their own personal ideas and attitude towards the problem, so take it into consideration.
  2. When you gather enough information concerning the topic, try to produce your own ideas and attitude towards it. It is positive if you select facts, cases, events from the real life, your experience and connect them with the topic. Try to contrast your thoughts with the ideas of the specialists, experts in this topic and support your suggestions with the reliable evidence.
  3. When you write a critical research paper, remember about the structure of the whole paper. Comparing the results of the scholars, try to arrange your writing carefully, devoting a separate paragraph to every new point under discussion. When you build your paper logically, it will look well-analyzed, easy for understanding and valuable. Besides, always provide pros and cons to every point under research to analyze the problem from all sides.
  4. Using the ideas of the famous scholars, do not forget to cite their expressions, because your work will look like a stream of thoughts of the omniscient first person. Concluding the critical research paper, summarize the general points under investigation and write what you have achieved with your research, what problems have been solved and on the other hand, what problems arose and need extra research. Remember that a critical research must not be a great dissertation but a brief analysis of the given topic, comparison of different points of view and experience to present your own ideas objectively.
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    Tuesday, September 11, 2012

    Essay on Parole and Probation

    Essay on Parole and Probation

    Nowadays there are a lot of different programs which aims at the fulfillment of probation and parole activities and prevention of crimes. But, before discussing them, it is necessary to underline that probation and parole are probably the most effective alternatives to incarceration.

    Community Based Corrections are nowadays the basis of parole and probation and the role of communities has increased significantly. As a result nowadays an offender has a chance to be controlled and supervised or even treated by a community and he does not need to remain in prison. However, the development of Community Based Corrections was quite a long and complicated process but nowadays it is considered to be efficient and one of the most perspective directions.

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    In general, Community Based Corrections programs have a number of tools, which contribute to the change of offender’s antisocial behavior. As a rule it is highly recommended to use several tools in a combination that increases their effectiveness, while the use of only one tool may be ineffective. On analyzing community correction literature it is possible to find out that criminal sanctions without the delivery of correctional services does not work. What does work is the delivery of appropriate correctional services.

    Briefly it is possible to single out the following points of intervention, which produce a positive impact on offender’s behavior: 1) intensive services for high risk clients that utilizes a behavioral approach; 2) targeting criminal attitudes, beliefs, and values that support criminal behavior for change; 3) matching program interventions to the offender’s needs that means that treatment should be individualized rather than using a standardized, one-size-fits all approach; 4) enforcing program and behavioral requirements in a firm and fair manner; 5) utilizing positive role models; 6) providing relapse prevention programming to help clients resist reverting to criminal ways of thinking and behaving.

    In principle it is possible the overwhelming majority of the programs have something in common and are close to each other and as a rule the same officer handles both probation and parole cases. Probation allows convicted misdemeanants and felons to remain in the community under supervision while parole releases offenders from prison prior to the expiration of their sentences for supervision in the community. Traditionally offenders undergo classification assessment, case planning and referral to local treatment agencies while the main task of probation/parole officers is to maintain contact with their clients and monitor progress.

    Now it is necessary to dwell upon practical side of the question and analyze some examples of the programs that currently exist and it would help develop a new effective program.

    Firstly, a program, which is considered to be quite effective, is Drug Court. It is a pilot program in Polk County for non-violent felons and misdemeanants who are on probation and have been arrested on a new charges or have reported violation. Consequently, the program is mainly focused on offenders who have already committed crimes and it is possible to say that the program is limited since it can hardly be used for cases of ‘new criminals’ but still it does not make the program less effective for the cases of recidivism.

    The program is controlled by the Court. The clients participating in the program which lasts a year and aims at working out the abilities of clients to find jobs and stay sober. The program starts with up to 30 days of inpatient treatment, followed by a stay in a halfway house. At this respect it should be pointed out that the program combines both juridical and health aspects and permits its clients to be treated.

    Also it is necessary to underline that the execution of the program is thoroughly controlled and clients remain under a surveillance so that they have regular drug tests, wear electronic monitoring devices, etc. The Court monitors progress through non-adversarial periodical reviews in the courtroom. The judge hears reports from the probation supervisors, treatment staff, attorneys, and the client. If clients are successful they receive praise and recognition for progress. They also receive a kind of rewards in form of incentives of reduced probation length and elimination of fines and tickets while those who fail to change and continue to violate probation rules can be sent for jails for brief stays and placed in weekend work programs. Thus it is possible to say that the program successfully combines the principles of reward and punishment the latter is used in relation to those who break the rules while the former is used for those who succeeded in the program and what is particularly important is the participation of clients in work programs that teach them to live by their work and not crimes.

    Another effective program is the Youthful Offender Program. The program targets young offenders age 16 to 21 which have been charged with their first aggravated misdemeanor or felony in adult court. Obviously it limits the effectiveness of the program since it cannot be expanded on clients older than 21 but at the same time it prevents young people from committing mistakes in their adulthood when they are at the particularly harmful age.

    Nonetheless the Youth Offenders Program seems to be more effective than the previous one since it uses a variety of community resources to provide rehabilitation. It is designed to direct the young offender out of the criminal justice system through intervention. The program utilizes substance abuse evaluation and treatment, education, victim offender mediation, community service, mentoring, employment programs, gang awareness education, and case management supervision. What seems to be particularly important about the program is its educational component.

    Speaking about a new program, it should be a combination of the two mentioned above and absorb the best qualities of both programs. It means that it should be oriented on all categories of offenders, those who are young and commit their first crime and those who are recidivists. Furthermore, it should include educational component since many, even adult offenders are low-educated people, and often they are forced to commit crimes because they do not have any alternatives. At the same time, education should also be supported practical work, in other words offenders should realize that the education they get could really lead to a normal and better life. Finally, the program should be basically controlled by the community and not the court only. Hopefully, such program could be really effective.
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    Monday, September 10, 2012

    Essay on Lena and Beneatha Younger

    Essay on Lena and Beneatha Younger

    It is 1972. The Younger family lives in the Clybourne Park. They have acquired several friends among their neighbors. For the last fifteen years, much has changed. The Youngers struggled a lot to occupy a decent place in the white society, to prove others that African Americans are worth a better life. At last, they achieved their aim: they have their own large house and the whole family lives there.

    It took them much time and efforts to get on with the neighbors. When fifteen years ago they were offered money just to stay away and never even try to join the white society, they did not hesitated over the choice. They chose their cherished dream; they chose the aim they had been trying to achieve for so long time.

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    All members of the family are strong personalities with strict moral principles. Beneatha, an ambitious independent student, never thought of assimilating with white people and wished to move to Africa with her Nigerian boyfriend Asagai. She was searching for her identity and did not understand her mother’s desire to live among white people. However, after moving to the Clybourne Park, she realized that at the time her family needed her help as never before. She did not move to Africa but even persuaded Asagai to stay in America. Beneatha decided to prove her rights there and to make white people understand and normally accept African Americans. She finished her studies, found a good job and married Asagai.

    Walter, who comprehended at last the importance of the unity of the family and assisted his mother in the fulfillment of their dream, became a strong manly person. He learnt to think not only about himself but about his family as well. He does not argue about trifles any more, he learned to listen to other members of the family and co-operate with them while taking important decisions. His wife Ruth gave birth to a son and it made Walter more responsible and attentive to his family.

    Lena Younger’s life is at last calm. Despite different problems and dilemmas that all the members of her large family meet, Mama feels happy, because her dream has fulfilled. Her family moved up in the world at the cost of many sufferings and racial struggles, nevertheless they managed to prove white people, at least their neighbors, that they are not the lower class. However, some people do not even greet them, but they managed to find friends as well.

    For the past years, much has changed in the policy of the USA towards African Americans. The American Civil Rights Movement gained the diminution of the segregation and African Americans even began to play little roles in American politics.

    Thus, in fifteen years the Youngers changed their lives much, they have achieved their aims due to strong will and character. All the members of the Younger family appreciated the significance of each other and of the unity of the family. They fought against racial discrimination and they managed to make several steps toward their equality with others. Still, primarily they have shown us how important it is to gain your ends in spite of all obstacles.
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