Wednesday, August 22, 2012

Essay on Empires

Essay on Empires

In this paper, I’m going to touch upon such an important period in the world history as the Era of the end of Empires. The breakdown of the Ottoman Empire and the gradual disintegration of the colonial system influenced not only the history of Middle East states but of the European countries as well. The process of the establishment of independent states lasted for more than half of the twentieth century and eventually redrew the political map of the world.

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The Ottoman Empire was extremely influential in the Middle East during about 400 years. It is significant that the Ottoman sultan had total power due to his status of both a political and a religious leader. However, it was during the First World War that French and British forces beat the Ottoman troops and undermined strength of the Empire. This event radically changed the condition of the Arab provinces that became states controlled by the conquerors. The newly established states entered a new epoch of their political life. A new means of political control, the mandate, was introduced there.

Personally, I am inclined to believe that it was a progress. Despite the fact that they were colonies, Middle East states made another step towards the independence. After all, the colonialists were limited by certain guidelines. For example, they had to establish constitutional governments in every country. Besides, I think that when the states were colonies the main features of present-day countries were founded, such as fixed state frontiers, a flag, a legal system etc.

It was World War II that also altered the position of many countries in the world. Just like World War I destroyed the Ottoman Empire, World War II caused grave damage to the reputation of France and Great Britain – the colonizers of Middle East countries. In fact World War II made the colonies independent states. Moreover I believe, it can be considered as one of the few positive effects of the Second World War.

Broadly speaking, I suppose this long process of establishment of the independence was a quite natural feature of development of the countries and of the world in general. Struggle for absolute freedom is characteristic for any nation. For a long time Middle East countries did not have any opportunity to develop their nation, culture and policy on their own, without anybody’s control. Being a great civilization with rich culture and history, Middle East had to subdue to an absolutely different culture and nation. On the one hand the European countries somehow contributed to the development of their colonies, but on the other hand the lack of independence was never fruitful for any country.

To sum up, I think the Era of the end of Empires became a landmark in the world history. It began a new stage in the development of the world as new countries appeared. Despite the fact that it took more than half a century to achieve independence, despite all the problems that independent states faced during the first years of their new political life the result was worth the struggle.
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