Thursday, May 17, 2012

ADHD Term paper

ADHD Term paper

Physical Disabilities, Health Impairment and ADHD
In this research paper I am going to reveal my research results regarding physical disabilities, health impairment and ADHD. I will cover the following diseases: cerebral palsy, spina bifida, muscular dystrophy, epilepsy, diabetes, asthma, cystic fibrosis, human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency, as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their impact on children.

Physical disability is the type of disability that involves the following disorders: neuromuscular or neuromotor, orthopedic, pulmonary and cardiovascular. Children that have physical disabilities can have either orthopedic or neuromotor impairments. Orthopedic impairments include disabilities of skeletal system (joints, bones, limbs, etc.). Neuromotor impairments are connected with central nervous system. Even though neuromotor and orthopedic impairments are quite different, they can result in similar movement limitations. For example, a child might not be able to move his legs because of the problems in his central nervous system.

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Health impairments have a great impact on the children’s performance. Due to acute or chronic health problems, children may have limited strength, alertness or vitality. Such health problems include: heart problems, nephritis, asthma, hemophilia, epilepsy, lead poisoning, leukemia, diabetes, rheumatic fever, tuberculosis, cancer, cystic fibrosis, etc. ADHD is categorized as other health impairment disorder. Symptoms of ADHD in children include: not being attentive, not listening, having difficulties in playing quietly, talk excessively, can be easily distracted, are being in the constant motion, have difficulties in concentration of their attention.

As a result, physical disabilities, health impairments and ADHD affect education performance of children, but not all of them require special education problem. Physical disabilities and health problems can be congenial or acquired. Disabilities and impairments might have chronic (or long-lasting) or acute (short) conditions.

Cerebral palsy is referred to as the disorder of voluntary posture and movement and is said to be the most widespread physical disability in children of school-age. It is a permanent condition that results from a lesion to the brain or brain growth abnormality. Cerebral palsy may result from many diseases that affect not completely developed brain. Children with this disorder usually experience disturbances of voluntary motor function, including extreme weakness, lack of coordination, involuntary convulsions, paralysis, etc. Such children may not control their arms, legs, have speech problems. When cerebral palsy is in its severe form, it can be diagnosed right after several months after child was born. However, it is often not detected until the child is already 2 or 3 years old. At this age children actively start to walk, stand and balance and parents start to notice that they have difficulties doing that. It is possible to treat, but not to cure cerebral palsy. It is not an actually a disease, it is not fatal and usually not inherited. Cerebral palsy may have different.

Spina bifida is said to be birth defect that is caused by the incomplete closure of the embryonic neural tube. As a result of this, the nerves and spinal cord are not able to control muscles in the normal manner. The mildest form of spina bifida is spina bifida occulta, in which just few vertebrae are deformed, often in the lower spine. This defect can not be seen externally. These disorders do not usually result in the loss of function for children. Meningomylocele is said to be the most spread and the most severe form of spina bifida. With this defect, the involved area marked by a flattened, plate-like nervous tissue mass with no overlying membrane. The exposure of these tissues and nerves make the child more disposed to life-threatening infections. This form of spina bifida has a high possibility rate of paralysis. Also, it has more affect on girls. There is also a very high possibility (about 80-90%) of hydrocephalus development, which is the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in brain surrounding tissues. Hydrocephalus may lead to enlargement of the head and serious brain damage.

Muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease that weakens essential for the body muscles (muscles that make the body move). Children that have muscular dystrophy have missing or incorrect gene information that prevents them from producing proteins they require to have healthy muscles. This disease is not contagious and cannot be caught from someone who has it. Children with muscular dystrophy can easily fall down; have difficulties to stand up after playing on the ground.

Treatment of muscular dystrophy is focused on maintaining the function of unaffected muscles as long as it is possible, help child at home. Emotional support and counseling the family with such a child is an important part of the treatment process. Improved school education and counseling programs are required for children with muscular dystrophy.

Spinal cord injuries are often the result of spinal cord lesion that is caused by a penetrating injury, vertebrae fracture, spinal cord compression, motor vehicle accidents, acts of violence, falls, etc. Children with spinal cord injuries usually use wheelchairs for mobility. Rehabilitation and treatment programs for such children usually include physical therapy, utilization of adaptive devices, extensive psychological support about having normal life and normal sexual relationships.

Epilepsy is said to be the pattern of chronic seizures of any type. Seizures occur when the brain is functioning normally and results in a change of the level of awareness, attention and movement. There are different parts of brain that experience different types of seizures. They can be localized or spread. There is febrile seizure that occurs when children contract illness (cold, chickenpox) that is accompanied by the fever. It is the most spread type of seizure in children. There are also neonatal, complex partial and generalized seizures, as well as status epilepticus, when the seizure is lasting more then 30 minutes or there are repeating seizures without return to normal state between them (tonic-clonic seizures). This status is very serious matter.

During the seizure, the electrochemical activity of the brain is not functioning properly and it causes the lost of control over muscles for particular time period.

Diabetes is referred to as the chronic metabolism disorder. This disorder in children is very serious for their education and overall well-being, as children with diabetes are not able to obtain adequate amount of energy from food. Therefore, such children lack energy and their eyes and kidneys are affected, if diabetes is not treated. Early diabetes symptoms involve headaches, weight loss, frequent urination, thirst, as well as slow healing cuts.

Type 1 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes in children. Children with this diabetes type have insufficient insulin due to inability of pancreas to produce it. The most common symptoms in children include tummy aches, headaches and behavior problems. As a treatment, a child should receive insulin injections on the daily basis. First, the amount of required insulin should be identified by the testing of the amount of sugar and other substances in their urine. Children with diabetes must follow a special diet on a regular basis that is prescribed by a nutrition specialist or physician. There is also type2 diabetes that results in body failure to use insulin properly, as well as insulin deficiency.

It is a chronic (long-term) lung disease that narrows and inflames the airways. It causes recurring wheezing periods, breath shortness, and coughing and chest tightness. In most cases coughing occurs at night or in the early morning. This asthmatic attack is often triggered by allergens, irritants, physical exercises or emotional stress.

Asthma is said to be the most prevailing lung disease in children of school-age. Before the actual treatment, asthma causes should be identified, and situations that provoke attacks-investigated. Those situations can include changes in the temperature, season change, level of humidity, rigorous physical activity. Asthma in children can be treated medically and through limited exposure to revealed allergens.

Cystic fibrosis is said to be the genetic disease that occurs more frequently in Caucasians, according to the US statistics. The gene that is the cause of cystic fibrosis is on chromosome 7, and the child must inherit that defective gene from each parent in order to obtain this disease. There are more then 700 various gene mutations that cause cystic fibrosis. The most common is delta F508. Symptoms of the disease include chronic cough, recurrent episodes of sinusitis and pneumonia, nasal polyps. Symptoms can also involve rectal prolapse, failure to thrive, poor growth, high level of sugar in blood, meconium ileus, etc.

Children with this disease often have problems with maldigestion, and subsequently malabsorbtion and steatorrhea.

Person with AIDS is not able to fight any diseases because his immune system is severely damaged. It cannot be cured. It is caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that can be found in the bodily fluid of the person that is infected (breast milk, blood, semen, vaginal secretions). The number of infected people is constantly increasing in the world. Children with HIV/AIDS experience significant weight loss, health problems, developmental delays (in language, memory, attention, motor functioning, etc.) Such children and their families often experience discrimination, isolation and prejudice; therefore school staff is encouraged to facilitate acceptance and social adjustment of children in school.

Children who experience attention deficit and hyperactivity on the constant basis might have ADHD. It is very difficult to take care of such a child at home, as well as in school. Such children have impulsive behavior, they are not able to stay on assigned tasks and are likely to have unsatisfactory interactions with others.

Capuchins monkeys appear to be the best helpers for people with disorders at their houses, as well as outside. It is primarily to their small size and excellent ability to create great relationships with people. They are easily taught and can perform a wide range of tasks.

In the conclusion I would like to summarize that people, and especially children with physical disabilities, health impairment and ADHD require much more attention and love. Besides adequate treatment, they need to feel that they are not alone, the support not just of their parents, but also of their mates and teachers. They need to understand that the fact that they have physical problems does not make them different from others.

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