Research Paper on England Population
England is one of constituent elements and the backbone part of the UK. Traditionally, England was perceived as highly conservative and the structure of the local population, to a significant extent, proves this stereotyped view on England since the main part of the local population, more than 87% were born in England. At the same time, England is susceptible to general trends that could be observed in the EU, including such countries as Germany, and other developed countries such as the USA. In such a situation, it is important to define the major demographic trends that could be observed nowadays in England and discuss the current demographic situation in order to better understand possible problems and perspectives of England in the future.
2. Population growth and fertility rate
Basically, England is densely populated, with the population about 50,5 million people (Fertility Rate for England in 2001). In this regard, it is similar to other well-developed countries such as Germany, where the density of population is also very high compared to its relatively small territory, which consistently smaller than that of the US, for instance. At the present moment, the demographic situation in England is relatively stable though, in recent years, it has demonstrated a bit disturbing trend to the gradual decline of the fertility rate and decrease of the growth of population. At this point the situation in England, where the fertility rate constitutes 1,65, is comparable to that of Germany, where the fertility rate is even lower and constitutes 1,45 (Fertility Rate for England in 2001, see Table 1 and 3). In this respect, the demographic situation in the US seems consistently better since the fertility rate of this country is 2,09 that is the highest fertility rate among well-developed countries of the world (U.S. Census Bureau).
3. Major demographic problems
In spite of a relatively stable demographic situation, England may face significant problems in the future, which are actually similar to those of Germany, since the low fertility rate and strict immigration legislation slows down the growth of the population and its natural reproduction become insufficient to meet the growing needs of the local population, especially taking into consideration the increasing life expectancy that increases the share of the older people in the structure of English and German population (see Table 4 and 5). In contrast, the US face the problem of the illegal immigration, which improves demographic situation in the country but deteriorates the economic potential of the local population. In this respect, it should be said that the ethnic diversity of the USA reflects the large share of immigrant population in the structure of American society compared to England and Germany (see Table 1 and 2).
At the same time, it should be pointed out that the age structure of the population in England and Germany is similar and basically reveal the same problem, which both England and Germany may face in the future – the problem of the further growth of the population and its natural reproduction. What is meant here is the fact that the growth of the population and its reproduction in England would gradually decline because the share of people at the age over 60 steadily increases. Even nowadays, this category of people constitutes about 20% of the population in both England and Germany, while in the future its share will increase even more. Consequently, England as well as Germany will naturally face the problem of the reproduction of the population.
Furthermore, it is also possible to indicate to possible socio-cultural problems England may face since the current demographic trends indicate to the necessity of the introduction of more liberal immigrant policy, but England is very conservative and its predominantly British population may be simply unprepared for the change of its traditional socio-cultural environment. In this regard, it is possible to refer to the USA, where various ethnic groups and communities can maintain their culture and tradition and the process of assimilation is rather mild. In contrast, England as well as Germany may have difficulties because the dominant ethnic groups, i.e. British and Germans get used to the domination and, therefore, there may be problems with tolerance in relation to other cultures.
In conclusion, it should be said that the demographic situation in England reveals certain problems the country will have to cope with in the nearest future. Otherwise, it may face serious demographic and economic crisis and, in this regard, the experience of the US may be adopted in England. In this respect, the necessity of change the immigration policy in response to the low fertility and population growth may be viewed as the main challenge in the demographic policy of England as well as Germany.
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